Key Resources

Since 2008, a number of documents have been published that complement this work and add to the growing body of sustainable technology reference materials and practical guides. Some are presented below:

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

The Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies is a concise document presenting in a structured form a large amount of information on tried and tested technologies. It provides a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions.

Cover image of a reference book or miscellany.

TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014]. PDF

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

Sanitation System Drawing Tool

The Sanitation System Drawing Tool is based on the 2nd edition of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. It can be used to modify systems 1-9 or to create a sanitation system completely from scratch. The tailor-made system can either be printed, included in a report or used for a presentation.

Cover image of a reference book or miscellany.

BOLLER D.; ULRICH L. (2015): Sanitation System Drawing Tool. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 05.08.2015].

The Sanitation System Drawing Tool is based on the 2nd edition of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. It can be used to modify systems 1-9 or to create a sanitation system completely from scratch. The tailor-made system can either be printed, included in a report or used for a presentation.

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Technology Cards for Workshops

Technology Cards for Workshops

A set of cards illustrating the different technologies from the Compendium of Sanitation Technologies of Eawag used for training workshops. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and describes a wide range of available sanitation technologies.

Cover image of a reference book or miscellany.

TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Technology Cards for Workshops. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 12.08.2014]. PDF

A set of cards illustrating the different technologies from the Compendium of Sanitation Technologies of Eawag used for training workshops. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and describes a wide range of available sanitation technologies.

SSWM Toolbox

Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management Toolbox

The SSWM Toolbox is the most comprehensive collection available on the tools and approaches of water management and sustainable sanitation. It combines process and planning tools and software and links them with publications, articles and web links, case studies and training material. It is available at: www.sswm.info.

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CONRADIN, K. (Editor); KROPAC, M. (Editor); SPUHLER, D. (Editor) (2010): SSWM Toolbox. Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management Toolbox. Basel: seecon international gmbh. URL [Accessed: 25.03.2014].

Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation (CLUES)

Complete Guidelines for Decision Makers with 30 Tools

CLUES presents a complete set of guidelines for sanitation planning in low-income urban areas. It is the most up-to-date planning framework for facilitating the delivery of environmental sanitation services for urban and peri-urban communities. CLUES features seven easy-to-follow steps, which are intended to be undertaken in sequential order. Step 5 of the planning approach relies on the Compendium, applying the systems approach to select the most appropriate technological option(s) for a given urban context. The document also provides guidance on how to foster an enabling environment for sanitation planning in urban settings. Published in 2011, 100 pages, with a memory key.

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LUETHI, C.; MOREL, A.; TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L. (2011): Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES). Dubendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 03.11.2011]. PDF

CLUES presents a complete set of guidelines for sanitation planning in low-income urban areas. It is the most up-to-date planning framework for facilitating the delivery of environmental sanitation services for urban and peri-urban communities. CLUES features seven easy-to-follow steps, which are intended to be undertaken in sequential order. Step 5 of the planning approach relies on the Compendium, applying the systems approach to select the most appropriate technological option(s) for a given urban context. The document also provides guidance on how to foster an enabling environment for sanitation planning in urban settings. Published in 2011, 100 pages, with a memory key.

Sanitation 21 (IWA)

A Planning Framework for Improving City-wide Sanitation Services

Sanitation 21 presents an internationally recognized planning framework based upon key principles of sanitation planning and recommended process guidelines. Built upon practical experience and best practices, Sanitation 21 brings together decisions about technology and management options with stakeholder needs and preferences to help inform the choice of appropriate sanitation systems. It is written in non-technical language to be relevant to policy makers and practitioners who are interested in providing appropriate and affordable sanitation services and presents recommended activities to guide the development of a city sanitation plan. This revised version of the Sanitation 21 framework builds upon the increase in knowledge and experience in city-wide planning.

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PARKINSON, J.; LUETHI, C.; WALTHER, D.; IWA (Editor); GIZ (Editor); Eawag-Sandec (Editor) (2014): Sanitation 21. A Planning Framework for Improving City-wide Sanitation Services. London: International Water Association (IWA). URL [Accessed: 25.08.2014]. PDF

Sanitation 21 presents an internationally recognized planning framework based upon key principles of sanitation planning and recommended process guidelines. Built upon practical experience and best practices, Sanitation 21 brings together decisions about technology and management options with stakeholder needs and preferences to help inform the choice of appropriate sanitation systems. It is written in non-technical language to be relevant to policy makers and practitioners who are interested in providing appropriate and affordable sanitation services and presents recommended activities to guide the development of a city sanitation plan. This revised version of the Sanitation 21 framework builds upon the increase in knowledge and experience in city-wide planning.

How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries (RTI/IWA)

This manual provides guidance in the design of wastewater systems in developing country settings. It promotes a context-specific approach to technology selection by guiding the user to select the most suitable technologies for their area. It provides tools and field guides for source characterization and site evaluation, as well as technology identification and selection. This manual is primarily addressed to private and public sector service providers, regulators and engineers/development specialists in charge of implementing wastewater systems.

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ROBBINS, D.M.; LIGON, G.C. (2014): How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries. London: International Water Association (IWA). URL [Accessed: 20.01.2015].

This manual provides guidance in the design of wastewater systems in developing country settings. It promotes a context-specific approach to technology selection by guiding the user to select the most suitable technologies for their area. It provides tools and field guides for source characterization and site evaluation, as well as technology identification and selection. This manual is primarily addressed to private and public sector service providers, regulators and engineers/development specialists in charge of implementing wastewater systems.

Faecal Sludge Management (Eawag)

Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

Cover image of a reference book or miscellany.

STRANDE, L. (Editor); RONTELTAP, M. (Editor); BRDJANOVIC, D. (Editor) (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing. URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]. PDF

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

Hygiene and Sanitation Software – An Overview of Approaches

In sanitation and hygiene programme and service delivery, several methods are used to engage target groups in development programmes to enable behavioural change and/or create a demand for services. These methods or approaches are generally referred to as ‘software’, to distinguish them from the provision of ‚hardware‘. This publication takes an in-depth look at the various hygiene and sanitation software approaches that have been deployed over the last 40 years in all types of settings – urban, informal-urban and rural, and aims to address such issues as what a particular approach is designed to achieve, what it actually comprises, when and where it should be used, how it should be implemented and how much it costs, etc. This publication was developed as a companion to the Compendium.

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PEAL, A.; EVANS, B.; VAN DER WOORDEN, C. (2010): Hygiene and Sanitation Software. An Overview of Approaches. Geneva: Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC). URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]. PDF

In sanitation and hygiene programme and service delivery, several methods are used to engage target groups in development programmes to enable behavioural change and/or create a demand for services. These methods or approaches are generally referred to as ‘software’, to distinguish them from the provision of ‚hardware‘. This publication takes an in-depth look at the various hygiene and sanitation software approaches that have been deployed over the last 40 years in all types of settings – urban, informal-urban and rural, and aims to address such issues as what a particular approach is designed to achieve, what it actually comprises, when and where it should be used, how it should be implemented and how much it costs, etc.

Webpage of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is an open international network of members who share a common vision on sustainable sanitation. The SuSanA website provides resources for education, practitioners and journalists.

Cover image of a reference book or miscellany.

SuSanA (Editor) (2014): Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA). Eschborn, Germany: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA). URL [Accessed: 10.06.2014].

The SuSanA Open Discussion Forum

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is an open international network of members who share a common vision on sustainable sanitation. The SuSanA Open Discussion Forum is an open discussion forum on sanitation. It covers a broad range of topics such as sanitation systems and technologies, health and hygiene, CLTS, school sanitation, sanitation systems for special conditions, menstrual hygiene management, SuSanA working groups and many more. All registered users can contribute to the forum by creating new discussion topics or by responding to the posts of others. Users can also subscribe to specific categories or topics after logging in and thereby follow specific discussions. 

Cover image of a reference book or miscellany.

SuSanA (Editor) (2014): The SuSanA Open Discussion Forum. Eschborn, Germany: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA). URL [Accessed: 10.06.2014].