Urine Separation - Closing the Nutrient Cycle

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JOHANSSON, M. (2000): Urine Separation - Closing the Nutrient Cycle. Final Report of the R&D Project: Source-Separated Human Urine - A Future Source of Fertilizer for Agriculture in the Stockholm Region. Stockholm: Stockholm Vatten, Stockholmshem & HSB National Federation. URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]. PDF

This report presents the present state of knowledge about urine-separating toilets and systems for the recirculation of urine as an agricultural fertilizer. It contains a description of urine separation technology and how a system can be constructed for recirculating urine from residential districts to farmland. It also contains concrete recommendations about planning and management of the various components of the system.