Solids-free sewers are also referred to as settled, small-bore, variable-grade gravity, or septic tank effluent gravity sewers. A precondition for solids-free sewers is efficient primary treatment at the household level. An interceptor, typically a single-chamber Septic Tank, captures settleable particles that could clog small pipes. The solids interceptor also functions to attenuate peak discharges. Because there is little risk of depositions and clogging, solids-free sewers do not have to be self-cleansing, i.e., no minimum flow velocity or tractive tension is needed. They require few inspection points, can have inflective gradients (i.e., negative slopes) and follow the topography. When the sewer roughly follows the ground contours, the flow is allowed to vary between open channel and pressure (full-bore) flow.
If the interceptors are correctly designed and operated, this type of sewer does not require self-cleansing velocities or minimum slopes. Even inflective gradients are possible, as long as the downstream end of the sewer is lower than the upstream end. Solids-free sewers do not have to be installed on a uniform gradient with a straight alignment between inspection points. The alignment may curve to avoid obstacles, allowing for greater construction tolerance. At high points in sections with pressure flow, the pipes must be ventilated. A minimum diameter of 75 mm is required to facilitate cleaning.
Expensive manholes are not needed because access for mechanical cleaning equipment is not necessary. Cleanouts or flushing points are sufficient and are installed at upstream ends, high points, intersections, or major changes in direction or pipe size. Compared to manholes, cleanouts can be more tightly sealed to prevent stormwater from entering. Stormwater must be excluded as it could exceed pipe capacity and lead to blockages due to grit depositions. Ideally, there should not be any storm- and groundwater in the sewers, but, in practice, some imperfectly sealed pipe joints must be expected. Estimates of groundwater infiltration and stormwater inflow must, therefore, be made when designing the system. The use of PVC pipes can minimize the risk of leakages.
This type of sewer is best suited to medium-density (peri-) urban areas and less appropriate in low-density or rural settings. It is most appropriate where there is no space for a Leach Field, or where effluents cannot otherwise be disposed of onsite (e.g., due to low infiltration capacity or high groundwater). It is also suitable where there is undulating terrain or rocky soil. A solids-free sewer can be connected to existing septic tanks where infiltration is no longer appropriate (e.g., due to increased housing density and/or water use).
As opposed to a Simplified Sewer a solids-free sewer can also be used where domestic water consumption is limited.
This technology is a flexible option that can be easily extended as the population grows. Because of shallow excavations and the use of fewer materials, it can be built at considerably lower cost than a Conventional Gravity Sewer.
If well constructed and maintained, sewers are a safe and hygienic means of transporting wastewater. Users must be well trained regarding the health risks associated with removing blockages and maintaining interceptor tanks.
Operation & Maintenance
Trained and responsible users are essential to avoid clogging by trash and other solids. Regular desludging of the septic tanks, is critical to ensure optimal performance of the sewer. Periodic flushing of the pipes is recommended to insure against blockages.
Special precautions should be taken to prevent illegal connections, since it is likely that interceptors would not be installed and solids would enter the system.
The sewerage authority, a private contractor or users committee should be responsible for the management of the system, particularly, to ensure that the interceptors are regularly desludged and to prevent illegal connections.
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This document is addressed to planners and staff of water supply and sanitation projects on household and community level. The reader is guided through the main steps of informed choices regarding the main proven technologies for water supply, purification and water treatment at household and community level. Each technology is described in a small factsheet, regarding its functioning, actors and their roles, the main operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements and problems, which can occur.
This article reviews low-cost sewerage options, their potential and their limitations. It also provides guidance on how to choose the most appropriate option, and gives examples of their successful application.
TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014]. PDF
This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.
HARINDI, F.T.; KAMIL, I.M. (n.y.): Application of Small Bore Sewer System in Kecamatan Jatinangor, Kabupaten Sumedang. Bandung: Faculty of Civil and Environment Engineering ITB. URL [Accessed: 10.01.2011]. PDF
The objective of this research was to analyse in how far the small bore sewertechnology could be applied and to design sewerage system in Kecamatan Jatinangor, Sumedang, using small bore sewer concept.
LIPKOW, U.; MUENCH, E. von (2010): Constructed Wetland for a Peri-urban Housing Area Bayawan City, Philippines. Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA). URL [Accessed: 10.01.2011]. PDF
Case study on constructed wetlands for a peri-urban housing area. Septic tanks are used to pre-treat the sewage. The pre-treated wastewater is transported through a small-bore sewer system.
NORMAN, G.; CHENOWETH, J. (2009): Appropriateness of Low-cost Sewerage for African Cities: A questionnaire survey of expert opinion. Surrey: University of Surrey. URL [Accessed: 11.01.2011]. PDF
A questionnaire survey was circulated via internet-based sanitation forums to assess the prevailing expert opinion on the appropriateness of low-cost sewerage for African cities. The questionnaire explored opinions about low-cost, solids-free sewerage (settled sewerage), low-cost, solids-transporting sewerage (simplified ed sewerage, condominial sewerage), and conventional solids-transporting sewerage.
WSP (Editor) (2010): Water and Sewerage Services in Karachi. Citizen Report Card: Sustainable Service Delivery Improvements. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. URL [Accessed: 03.10.2011]. PDF
This report discusses the key findings and recommendations emerging from a pilot Citizen Report Card (CRC) on water, sanitation, and sewerage services in Karachi. The CRC, pioneered by the Public Affairs Center (PAC), Bengaluru, provides public agencies with systematic feedback from users of public services. CRC gains such feedback through sample surveys on aspects of service quality that users know best, and enable public agencies to identify strengths and weaknesses in their work.
PEARCE-OROZ, G. (Editor) (2011): Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Challenges in Latin America for the Next Decade. Lima: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 14.05.2012]. PDF
Based on market research, this new WSP technical paper analyzes the main features of the fecal sludge collection businesses in each city, including the marketing mix, potential demand, supply capacity, and legal frameworks. In addition, the paper spotlights major challenges and opportunities in fecal sludge management, describing the current and potential market for fecal sludge removal, collection, and disposal in peri-urban areas—which typically struggle with high population density, limited land planning, high citizen insecurity, and low coverage of basic services.
EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Lecture Notes . Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). PDF
Lecture notes on technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries.
EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Presentation. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec). PDF
PDF presentation on the technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries.
WTO (Editor) (2006): Sanitation is more than life… Sustainable Sanitation Options for Sri Lanka. Guidelines and Technical Option Sheets. World Toilet Organisation (WTO) and World Vision. PDF
Volume III of the ‘Composite Document on Sanitation’ provides practical tools for appropriate sanitation implementation.
http://www.unep.or.jp [Accessed: 10.01.2011]
This website contains information about solids-free sewer systems (also known as small bore sewer systems)