Approach & Terminology

This Compendium defines sanitation as a multi-step process in which human excreta and wastewater are managed from the point of generation to the point of use or ultimate disposal. A Sanitation System is a context-specific series of technologies and services for the management of these wastes (or resources), i.e. for their collection, containment, transport, transformation, utilisation or disposal. A sanitation system is comprised of Products (wastes) which travel through Functional Groups which contain Technologies which can be selected according to the context. By selecting a Technology for each Product from each applicable Functional Group, one can design a logical Sanitation System.

A sanitation system also includes the management, operation and maintenance (O&M) required to ensure that the system functions safely and sustainably. A System Template defines a suite of compatible technology combinations from which a system can be designed. In Part 1 of this Compendium nine different sanitation system templates are described. A detailed explanation how system templates function and how they are used is given in the section “Using the System Templates”.